How beer is made ?

 Beer is one of the most ancient and popular drinks consumed worldwide right after water and tea.




Beer can be classified as lager and ale. 
Lagers are prepared by bottom-fermenting yeasts (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), that work at colder temperatures. Lagers have crips taste and are yellow in color.

Ales are prepared by the top-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which works in warmer temperatures. Ales have richer and highly flavored and have a pale color.

Today we will discuss the process of beer making:

Starting with raw materials-




The brewing of beer is divided into the following steps:

  • Malting
  • Mashing
  • Boiling the wort with hops
  • Fermentation
  • Aging /maturing
  • Finishing

MALTING

  • Barley grains are steep in water at 10- 15.7 degrees celsius.
  • Then, germinated at 16 to 21degree celsius  for 5-7 days
  • Klin dried, to immediately stop the further germination
  • Crushed before use
* sprouts/ germ is removed
** Malt is the source of amylases and proteinases

MASHING

The purpose of mashing is to alleviate the solubility of valuable portions of malt and malt adjuncts.
  • Ground malt is mixed with water at 38 to 50 degrees celsius.
  • Then, cooked, boiled, and steamed malt adjuncts at a temperature of 100 degrees are mixed with ground malt.
  • This brings the temperature of cereal malt mash to 65 to 70 degrees ( Here, saccharification takes place; production of sugars from starch)
  • Now, again the temperature is raised above 75 degrees, to inactivate the enzymes
  • Insoluble materials settle down at the bottom, filtration is done and the mixture emerges as WORT
BOILING THE WORT WITH HOPS



  • Wort is taken and added with hops
  • Boiled for 2.5 hours, filtration is done to remove wort residues and precipitated protein
  • FINAL WORT is ready for fermentation
FERMENTATION



A special beer yeast for bottom fermentation is used, a strain of Saccharomyces carlsbergenesis

  • Cooled wort, temperature could vary from 3.3  to 14 degrees.
  • Fermentation is carried out for about 8 to 10 days
Q What actually happens during the process of fermentation?
  1.  Wort(Sugar) is converted to alcohol, carbon dioxide, glycerol, and acetic acid
  2. Protein the wort yield little amount of higher alcohols, acids, organic acids, and alcohol combine to form aromatic esters
  3. Foaming first increases and eventually decreases with the passing time
  4. At last, yeast flocculate at the top or settle down
AGING AND MATURING


  • Young green beer is stored in vats at zero degrees for several weeks or months
Q What happens while maturing?
  1. precipitation of proteins, yeast, resins, and other desirable substances takes place
  2. Beer becomes more clear and mellowed
  3. Esters and other compounds are formed that add flavors and aroma
  4. Body of the beer changes from harsh to smooth
FINISHING



After aging, 0.45- 0.52 % carbon dioxide is added to lager beer to make carbonated beer.
The alcohol content should be 3.8 % by weight.
Beer is pasteurized (60-61 degrees) or membrane filtered and then packed into cans and bottles.




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